Majority of Tiger studies have relied on Conventional Techniques such as:
- Surveys based on signs (e.g. pugmarks, scrapes, scat and urination pattern)
- Interviews with local inhabitants
- Camera trapping
Conventional techniques possess several disadvantages like:
- Extended field time (~40-50 days)
- High cost of field work
Genetic monitoring has become a established scientific and convincing data-collection approach with great potential for wildlife and conservation biologists
Modern Genetic technique, by exploiting individual uniqueness, can utilize variety of non-invasive genetic samples like:-
hair, feces, urine, feathers, shed skin, saliva, egg shells to collect critical data eg.,
- To identify presence of rare or elusive species,
- To count and identify individuals,
- To determine gender,
- To identify diet items,
- To evaluate genetic diversity, population structure, and mating system.
- To estimate wildlife populations without handling, capturing, or even observing individual animals.